According to a study published by the French Directorate for the Development of the Media and European Audiovisual Observatory, there were 142 VOD services – excluding ones devoted solely to music and adult content – operating in 24 European markets as of the end of last year. When free access services, those launched this year and ones in other European markets are taken into account, the number currently operating acrosss the continent stands at over 150. Of the 24 markets covered, France came top with 20 services, followed by The Netherlands (19), UK (13) and Germany (12), while three countries – Turkey, Slovenia and Luxembourg – had none. The majority of the 142 services (94) were distributed over the Internet and almost one in three (47) via IPTV. Cable, satellite and DTT distribution were only used by 11, six and one service respectively.